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Home » Electricity (333 Papers)

Static Electricity and Lightning
Lightning is a discharge of static electricity in the atmosphere, which causes a bright flash of light. When lighting goes through the air, it heats the air to degrees hotter than the sun's surface about 50,000 degrees fahrenheit. This heating causes the air to expand and contract. This causes the sound called thunder. Lightning is caused by a build up of negative ions in the atmosphere which discharges into the ground causing the negative ions to go with the positive ions in the ground. Static ... Static electricity is negatively and positively charged atoms. ... Do not touch things that use electricity unless they are unplugged. ... Static electricity has been known about for some time. ... In 1733 C.F. de Cistenay Dufay named the two charges of static, resinous electricity due to too many electrons, and electron deficiency electricity. ... Another static electricity generator is Rouland's generator. ... Wordcount: 1661 Pages: 7
Electrochemistry
Electrochemistry is the study of chemical changes produced by electric current and with the production of electricity by chemical reactions. All electrochemical reactions are redox reactions, which means that electrons are always transferred. Most electrochemical reactions occur in cells. Cells are contained places for reactions where electricity enters and exits through electrodes. There are two main types of cells. One type, the electrolytic cells, requires electricity to produce a non-spontan ... Cells are contained places for reactions where electricity enters and exits through electrodes. ... One type, the electrolytic cells, requires electricity to produce a non-spontaneous chemical reaction. ... Electricity is carried through ionic solutions by the movement of dislike charges toward each other. In metals electricity moves through metallic bonds, this allows electrons to move freely. ... The anode is where electricity exits the cell either to an outside source or to the cathode. ... Wordcount: 404 Pages: 2
Electric Industry:Privatization
Introduction Since the privatisation of the British electricity industry in the early 1990"s the power industry has gone through major structural changes. As with most privatisation of former public companies, (such as the privatisation of British Telecom and British Gas), the government wished to see increased efficiency in the production of electricity. By privatising, the government hoped that the incentive of higher profits would act as a reward for efficiency, meaning that more effort ... Introduction Since the privatisation of the British electricity industry in the early 1990"s the power industry has gone through major structural changes. ... In order to pass savings onto the consumer, the electricity companies would have to work under certain restrictions imposed by the government and the electricity regulator, (OfGen), which were designed to prevent private monopolies exploiting the consumer. ... This meant that from 1997 any customer in the UK could buy electricity from any of the other regional electricity companies. The question that I wish to answer is: - To w... Wordcount: 4585 Pages: 18
Solar Energy Electrical Source
A livable society in which all essential sources of man-made energy, which is virtually pollution-free and affordable, seems impossible. Although such a concept seems like science fiction today, real efforts are underway to assure that by the late 21st century, what once seemed like a dream, will be reality. This dream is slowly being achieved through improved conservation methods and what will become decades long restructuring of our energy economy. "During this time, innovative energy tech ... Photovoltaic, solar cells that make electricity, and fuel cell technologies are rapidly improving. ... And in India, the state government of Rajasthan hopes to get ahead of the rest of the world to become the world leader in generating solar electricity. Solar panels are an ideal source of electricity, which is the most versatile form of energy. ... "As electricity consumption continues to rise around the world, a power source with these advantages could ameliorate the environmental toll of industrialization.... Improved solar cells became a reliable source of electricity for sate... Wordcount: 588 Pages: 2
Battery Failure
PROBLEM: BATTERIES TEND TO FAIL AT EXTREME TEMPERATURES. TESTABLE QUESTION: HOW AND WHY DO DIFFERENT BATTERY TYPES FAIL AT EXTREME TEMPERATURES? ELECTRO~CHEMISTY BATTERY FAILURE HONORS CHEMISTY RESEARCH PROJECT HISTORY OF THE BATTERY The battery"s origins may be followed back to very ancient times. We know that many of the "wise men" could have been exploring and testing electricity. For example, a clay vase, thought to be several thousand years old, was discovered in 1932 near ... We know that many of the "wise men" could have been exploring and testing electricity. ... It contained an iron rod inserted into a thin copper cylinder, which may have served to hold static electricity. ... Faraday pressed on and in 1831, he showed that a moving magnet could generate electricity in a nearby wire. ... They realized that each zinc-paper-silver "sandwich" was actually a separate source of low-voltage electricity. ... A battery, also referred to as an electric cell, is a device that converts chemical energy into electricity. ... Wordcount: 1824 Pages: 7
Zero Emissions Attainment
Air pollution has been a known problem for a very long time. There have numerous measures to try to lower the levels of pollutants that factories, chemical plants, incinerators, and power generating facilities create. These facilities are now regulated strictly by governments around the world. There is still an even greater threat to our atmosphere, the pollutants that come out the exhausts of internal combustion engines (ICE) of automobiles. Cars are our a permanent part of our society, th ... The electricity created runs through the circuit connected to the electrodes. ... Hydrogen fuel, which can be obtained from fuels such as natural gas, methanol,or petroleum, and oxygen from the air electrochemically combine in the fuel cell to produce electricity. ... The electrons are captured as useful electricity through an external circuit and combine with the protons and oxygen to produce water vapor on the cathode side. ... The main problem that developers of N2 powered cars had to overcome was that when thenitrogen was expanding, it absorbed so much heat, that the pipes that carried ... Wordcount: 1385 Pages: 6
Great Britain Industrial Revolution during 18th Century
The Industrial Revolution In the last part of the 18th century, a new revolution gripped an unready world. This revolution was not a political one, however it would lead to many implications later in its existence. Nor was this revolution a social or cultural one. This revolution was an economic one in which there was a transformation from the traditional hand made tools and items to machine driven, mass produced goods. The Industrial Revolution, as it is called by historians, change ... Also, people were able to feel the benefits of electricity, with the invention of the dynamo by Michael Faraday. Electricity flourished in people"s lives, supplying them with light and to power machines. The telegraph, as stated above, used the benefits of electricity. ... Wordcount: 839 Pages: 3
Environmental Revolution
Evironmentalism: The Next Step Broad Social Change Through Personal Commitment Introduction In the last thirty years, America has witnessed an environmental revolution. New laws like the 1963 Clean Air Act and the 1974 Safe Drinking Water Act forged new ground in political environmentalism. Social phenomena like Earth Day, organized by Dennis Hayes in 1970, and the beginning of large-scale recycling, marked by Oregon's 1972 Bottle Bill, have help change the way Americans think about the environm ... (Although electricity is another major consumer source of fossil fuel consumption, that will be discussed in the Energy section.) ... Wordcount: 5723 Pages: 23
Year 2000 Millennium Bug
First of all, what is Y2K? Well, this increasingly popular word represents the "Year 2000". January 1, 2000 will be incredibly significant, not just because it represents the beginning of a new century, but also because on that date, a problem that will affect the whole world will occur. A large percentage of older computer systems and software will either stop working or malfunction. This problem is referred to as the "Millennium Bug". It is the bug that when the date is switched from 199 ... Because we live in a world that relies on satellites, air, rail, manufacturing plants, electricity, heat, telephones, and television; financial and banking systems, utilities, government, healthcare, defense-all of these systems rely on computers. ... Electricity will be out, water will not be available, transportation will be disrupted, food will be high demanding, and the whole world will just be in chaos. ... Wordcount: 1251 Pages: 5
Electrical Resistance: An Overview
Background Knowledge Resistance, in electricity, is a property of any object or substance to resist the flow of an electrical current. The quantity of resistance in an electric circuit determines the amount of current flowing in the circuit for any given voltage applied to the circuit. The resistance of an object is determined by the nature of the substance of which it is composed, its resistivity, accounting for its dimensions and its temperature. Resistivity is expressed in terms of Ohms ... Background Knowledge Resistance, in electricity, is a property of any object or substance to resist the flow of an electrical current. ... The difference between a conductor and an insulator, which is a poor conductor of electricity, is one of degree rather than kind, because all substances conduct electricity to some extent. A good conductor of electricity, such as silver or copper, may have a conductivity billions of times as great, or more, as the conductivity of a good insulator, such as glass or mica. ... Wordcount: 1175 Pages: 5
California's Energy Deregulation Plan
Deregulation is the elimination of regulated rate tariffs on energy that is supplied. Deregulation ultimately spreads the risk of an energy crisis amongst multiple companies in a specific region then on one monopoly company. What it boils down to is, big money. Whether it is a natural gas company or a supplier of energy, the main goal is to make profit. Over the past years in California, it can be seen that many energy suppliers have been working to bring down the cost of making and providi ... The plan was intended to bring more competition into the state"s electricity industry. ... And, the demand for electricity has been increasing. ... Not all of the electricity that is consumed in California is produced there. There are many out-of-state suppliers that provide electricity to the state. Twenty-five percent of the states electricity daily demand is imported from other states. ... Wordcount: 840 Pages: 3
Nuclear Power Energy Source
Across the world, the demand for electricity is rising, requiring a method be found to satisfy it. Energy conservation techniques will not be sufficient to keep demand down. Another method, building new power plants, will soon need to be implemented. Some of these needed power plants will create pollution which can damage the environment; the only way to minimize the pollution is to choose the right power plant. Conventional power sources, such as coal, are known for the pollution they create. N ... Across the world, the demand for electricity is rising, requiring a method be found to satisfy it. ... These increases come from two sources: more uses for electricity and more users. In the residential area, electricity use increased 65% from 1973 to 1992. ... The advantages of using electricity over coal make electricity an attractive option. ... The construction and usage of nuclear power plants have cut the use of oil for electricity by 1000 barrels per day ("Nuclear"). ... Wordcount: 1123 Pages: 4
The Concept of Monopoly
The defined concept of a monopoly causes many students of economics to assume that any company that engages in monopolistic practices is automatically illegal, according to the Sherman Anti-Trust Act of the United States. A monopoly simply stated is an economic entity that completely dominates one facet of industry or one service industry. It alone sets the price of the good or service it is selling, because it has no competition, in contrast to the perfect competition of a competitive marketpl ... Thus, electricity is a classic example of a natural monopoly. "Once the gargantuan fixed costs involved with power generation and power lines" are paid "each additional unit of electricity costs very little" and thus "the more units sold, the more the fixed costs can be spread, creating a reasonable price for the consumer.4 Having two electric companies to compete against one another, or many small electricity companies that users could chose from would split electricity production. ... Government ownership could, in principle, solve the problem of the need for a natural monopoly and the vit... Wordcount: 1268 Pages: 5 Bibliography
Industrial Revolution A Period of Drastic Change
The Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution occurred from the 1700s to the early 1800s. The Industrial Revolution refers to the changes that occurred during the 1700s and 1800s and the time period. The Industrial Revolution was a period of drastic change from hand made items to machine manufactured goods. I believe the Industrial Revolution was a revolution in the "true" sense of the word. According to Webster's Dictionary (1984), a revolution is: "a sudden, radical, or com ... Another technological advance created by the Industrial Revolution was electricity. ... Electricity improved lighting, and communications. ... Wordcount: 941 Pages: 4
The Cleanest, Cheapest & Least Polluting The Hydroelectric Power Plant
Nuclear Power Most of the world"s electricity is generated by either thermal or hydroelectric power plants. Thermal power plants use fuel to boil water which makes steam. The steam turns turbines that generate electricity. Hydroelectric power plants use the great force of rushing water from a dam or a waterfall to turn the turbines. The majority of thermal power plants burn fossil fuels because thermal power plants are cheaper to maintain and have to meet less of the governments requi ... Nuclear Power Most of the world"s electricity is generated by either thermal or hydroelectric power plants. ... The steam turns turbines that generate electricity. ... (World Book vol. 14, 586) Nuclear power plants generate only about eleven percent of the world"s electricity. There are around 316 nuclear power plants in the world that create 213,000 megawatts of electricity. ... The steam that boiling the water makes is used to turn turbines, which in turn, generate electricity. ... Wordcount: 348 Pages: 1
Procedure on Installing a Modem
Installing a modem is like putting an engine in a car. You must have the right coaching and tools to affix it to work properly. For example, the car will not run if it lacks an engine. Hence, without a modem, you cannot connect to the Internet, a computer-based worldwide information network. Before I explain to you how to install a modem, I must first tell you what a modem is and its function. A modem, which stands for modulator-demodulator, is a device that connects a computer to a telephon ... Second, ground out your system to discharge any static electricity. Static electricity can be very harmful and deadly if not properly grounded. ... Wordcount: 902 Pages: 4
Advantages of Using Solar Energy in Our Daily Lives
Solar Energy Solar energy is a very useful resource. Today 80% of the energy we use comes from fossil fuels and about 1% comes from solar energy. Fossil fuels are nonrenewable, that means that they are used up faster than they could be replaced. Also fossil fuels limited and cause pollution. They are the primary cause for air pollution that causes acid rain and global warming. The good thing about solar energy is that it is renewable because it is always replaced. Also solar energy does not pol ... Solar cells convert the sunlight into electricity. ... When the outside circuit is closed, electricity flows. ... The single crystal is the oldest but most expensive way, but it is the best way to convert sunlight into electricity. ... Solar cells convert solar energy into electricity, which is used to power an electric motor or is stored in batteries. Solar cells only give electricity when the sun is shining so without sun, the solar-powered car must depend on the electricity stored in its batteries. ... Wordcount: 1752 Pages: 7
The Discovery of Electronics
electrical and electronics engineering he first practical application of electricity was the telegraph, invented by Samuel F.B. Morse in 1837. The need for electrical engineers was not felt until some 40 years later, upon the invention of the telephone (1876) by Alexander Graham Bell and of the incandescent lamp (1878) by Thomas A. Edison. These devices and Edison's first central generating plant in New York City (1882) created a large demand for men trained to work with electricity. The disco ... electrical and electronics engineering he first practical application of electricity was the telegraph, invented by Samuel F.B. ... These devices and Edison's first central generating plant in New York City (1882) created a large demand for men trained to work with electricity. ... the branch of engineering concerned with the practical applications of electricity in all its forms, including those of the field of electronics. ... The first practical application of electricity was the telegraph, invented by Samuel F.B. ... These devices and Edison's first central generating plant in ... Wordcount: 879 Pages: 4
Effective Communication of Safety Guidelines
Conducting an informative safety meeting can seem like a large task. The purpose of a safety meeting is to effectively convey safety information to employees. Effective communication of safety guidelines and rules can help to reduce the chance of injury on the jobsite. Safety meetings are most often conducted by supervisors, the foreman, or even the company owner. Like everything else, if you follow a plan it can be done with minimal stress. Here is a detailed, step-by-step plan for conduc ... A source of electricity will be needed to demonstrate proper use of electric tools. ... Wordcount: 1266 Pages: 5
Five Steps on "How to Conduct an Informative Safety Meeting"
Conducting an informative safety meeting can seem like a large task. The purpose of a safety meeting is to effectively convey safety information to employees. Effective communication of safety guidelines and rules can help to reduce the chance of injury on the job site. Safety meetings are most often conducted by supervisors, the foreman, or even the company owner. Like everything else, if you follow a plan it can be done with minimal stress. Here is a detailed, step-by-step plan for condu ... A source of electricity will be needed to demonstrate proper use of electric tools. ... Wordcount: 1266 Pages: 5
The Engineering History by Alexander Volta
Electrical Engineering Work Performed Electrical Engineers research, develop, design, and test electronic components, products, and systems for commercial, industrial, medical, military, and scientific applications (Cosgrove 749). They are concerned with devices that use small amounts of electricity that make up electronic components such as integrated circuits and microprocessors. By applying principles and techniques of electronic engineering they design, develop, and manufacture produc ... They are concerned with devices that use small amounts of electricity that make up electronic components such as integrated circuits and microprocessors. ... History The history of engineering goes back into the 19th century when Alexander Volta (1745-1827) made a remarkable discover regarding the nature of electricity (Cosgrove 749). ... By the time the mid-19th century came about the rules for electricity were being established. ... Alexander Graham Bell, who lived from 1847 to 1922, created the telephone which also uses electricity in order to operate (749). ... Through these invention... Wordcount: 1967 Pages: 8
Environmentally Friendly Architecture in 1975
"Home! Home! Sweet, sweet home! There's no place like home," the quote written by Payne shows how dear a home is to a person. Whereas a house is referred to as a place of dwelling, a home is more than that. A home is what a person makes of it; a home is given life by the dweller, making the home part of him or her. A home is more than just shelter or a place to eat and relax, it offers security and comfort to the dweller, it allows the dweller to personalize it, to customize, making it his or he ... Natural lighting not only saves electricity, it also provides a host of other benefits. ... A single 200-watt wind generator is mounted on the roof to provide electricity for the house. ... Although electronics and homes these days make more efficient use of electricity, people now tend to waste even more energy by using more electrical products and leaving them on when not in use.... Wordcount: 1164 Pages: 5
Environmental Concerns in Building Nuclear Power Plant
New form of Energy for Capetown Capetown is considered to be the largest city in South Africa, having a population of over 2,727,000 inhabits. The energy form used in Capetown at the moment, is Gas Turbine, wich provides most of the city´s electricity. The use of electricity in Capetown is very low compared to western countries, for example there is only one TV for almost ten people, the energy consumption per inhabit a year is about 4000 kWh, wich is 2550 kWh less than the energy consump ... The energy form used in Capetown at the moment, is Gas Turbine, wich provides most of the city´s electricity. The use of electricity in Capetown is very low compared to western countries, for example there is only one TV for almost ten people, the energy consumption per inhabit a year is about 4000 kWh, wich is 2550 kWh less than the energy consumption per inhabit a year in Paris, France. ... but we only need one nuclear power plant to provide enough electricity for 1 575 000 people. ... The turbine spins the gnerator, wich will produce electricity. The electricity is then sent to be form... Wordcount: 765 Pages: 3
Benefits on Using Wind Mill Electric Source
In 1987, Renner and Renner wrote, "One year after the dramatic collapse of world oil prices, any initial enthusiasm about it has yielded to a more sober assessment of the inter- national energy market. The predicted benefits of the oil price drop have turned out to be grossly overstated: cheap, abundant oil is clearly not the solution to the world economy's deep structural problems. Moreover, oil does not seem likely to remain cheap and abundant. Last year's turmoil is part of a larger boom-bust ... Wind generates electricity when its force on windmills creates electrical current. ... The use of windmills to generate electricity has distinct advantages. ... As of 2000, the cost of electricity generated by wind was about the same as the cost of electricity generated by more traditional methods (Pasqualetti, 2000). ... Today we have a variety of innovative technologies for producing electricity, including such things as solar energy as well as wind power. ... Wind power can reduce our dependence on petroleum by lessening its use to generate a growing demand for electricity.... Wordcount: 972 Pages: 4 Bibliography
The Ballard Fuel Cell
Introduction: Ballard Power System is the world leader in developing and commercializing proton exchange membrane fuel cell power systems. At the heart of this corporation is the Ballard Fuel Cell, a propriety zero-emission engine that converts natural gas, methanol, or hydrogen fuel directly into electricity without combustion. Over the last several years, many large corporations including Daimler-Benz, Chrysler, Honda, General Motors, Nissan, Hitachi, Volkswagen, Volvo, and GPU International ... How the PEM Fuel Cell Works: A fuel cell is an electrochemical device that produces electricity silently, without combustion. Hydrogen fuel, which is one of the most abundant chemicals in the universe, and oxygen from the air are electrochemically combined in the fuel cell to produce electricity. ... Each fuel cell produces roughly 0.7 of a watt of electricity. ... Ballard Fuel Cells, on the other hand, convert fuel directly into electricity, making them two or three times more effective than the obsolete internal combustion engine. ... Battery electrodes store the fuel producing ele... Wordcount: 1202 Pages: 5